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Re-throwing Exception and Exception Specifications, Custom in C++ Object Oriented Programming Language
An exception handler may re-throw the exception caught, to do so, throw keyword is written without any argument, the control comes out from current try/catch block and enters into next try/catch block, listed in the program.


Exceptions: Need of Exceptions, keywords, Simple and Multiple Exceptions in C++ Object Oriented Programming Language
Exceptions are run-time anomalies or unusual conditions that a program may encounter.
Some anomalies are Divide By Zero, Accessing An Array Out of Its Bound etc. And Exception Handling is a method to handle those anomalies from occurring because these anomalies or unexpected errors can cause data loss. . . . .Try, Catch, Throw.


Disk File I/O with Streams File Handling in C++ Object Oriented Programming Language
A program can receive/transfer data from/to
(a) Console I/O
(b) Disk File I/O
Data can be stored in a file using two formats
(a) Binary (b) Character
in binary format 512 takes 2bytes(16 bits), and in character format it occupies 3bytes, one for each digit.
In C++, the following hierarchy of classes is defined.


Stream in C++ Object Oriented Programming tutorial
A stream is a sequence of bytes, it acts as a source or destination for data.
The objects cin and cout are predefined in iostream file. The operator >> is overloaded in the istream class and << is overloaded in the ostream class. This is the reason, how, the same operator can handle various data types(e.g int, float, char. etc). Put() and get() functions Streams: Classes and Errors| OOP in C++ Programming Language.


Basic and Advance C++ Object Oriented Programming Language, Coding and Theory Tutorials with examples for Computer Science Students.


When two functions with the same name are present in base class and its derived class, and we try to call the copy of derived class function using the pointer of base class, what happens, normally, a base class pointer always calls the copy of the function present in base class(it doesn’t matter whether a base Class pointer is made to point to the object of derived class).
To resolve such type of problem, c++ provides “virtual” keyword, a function which is preceded by virtual keyword is known as virtual function. The benefit is, when a function is made virtual, c++ determines which function to use at runtime based on the type of object pointed to by the base pointer, rather than the type of the pointer. Rules for virtual Function. Pure Virtual Function. Virtual Functions – Friend Functions, Static Functions| OOP in C++.


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